Wednesday, March 16, 2016

scotland citizenship

It might be argued that language (or societal knowledge) testing for citizenship operates as a "boundary object" per Macqueen et al, 2015, in which case we need to be aware of what is on the other side of that boundary. That is, what does citizenship mean in Scotland? Here I summarise what I have learned from peer reviewed journal articles found with a Primo Central search in the Strathclyde library database, published since 2009, which came up with a little less than 150 results. I've chosen those articles whose abstract indicated greatest relevance to testing, migration or education. 

Akhtar (2008) presents an uncritical view of Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2002, and looks at translating theory about citizenship teaching into classroom practice. A "capable citizen" not only possesses "knowledge and skills" but also knows how and when to apply them. It might be objected that these are vague terms, and that all humans must possess "knowledge and skills" of some sort  to function at all.

Becares et al, 2011 is a quantitative study which deploys measures of cohesion and, based on those measures, finds that it is economic deprivation which disrupts social cohesion rather than ethnic homogeneity. To adapt Akhtar's reasoning, we might say that making all neighbourhoods more affluent will supply everyone with the knowledge and skills they need for capable citizenship. 

I am examining the role of citizenship in Scotland at a time when concepts of national identity are being interrogated. This is an ongoing process. Bechhoffer & McCrone, 2012 is a follow-up study to the one they conducted with data from 2006, (McCrone & Bechoffer, 2010). In both sets of research, the central question is whether participants' own sense of national identity affected their acceptance or rejection of claims to national identity of people born elsewhere, comparing data from England and from Scotland. 

[The above was written yesterday, Tuesday. I've just had another read of the submission feedback, and I'm being asked to concentrate on the ESOL aspect, which means of course Test Validity Paradigms. So I'll publish this now, and come back to Bechoffer & McCrone, and everything else connected with Scotland and Citizenship, in a new post].
 

REFERENCES

Akhtar, S. (2008). The implementation of education for citizenship in Scotland: recommendation of approaches for effective practice. Improving Schools, 11(1), 33–48. http://doi.org/10.1177/1365480207086752
Becares, L., Stafford, M., Laurence, J., & Nazroo, J. (2011). Composition, Concentration and Deprivation: Exploring their Association with Social Cohesion among Different Ethnic Groups in the UK. Urban Studies, 48(13), 2771–2787. http://doi.org/10.1177/0042098010391295
Bechhofer, F., & McCrone, D. (2012). Changing claims in context: national identity revisited. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 9870(August 2015), 1–21. http://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2012.676204
Bond, R., Charsley, K., & Grundy, S. (2010). An Audible Minority: Migration, Settlement and Identity Among English Graduates in Scotland. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 36(3), 483–499. http://doi.org/10.1080/13691830903357983
Chisari, M. (2015). Testing citizen identities: Australian migrants and the Australian values debate. Social Identities, 4630(September), 1–17. http://doi.org/10.1080/13504630.2015.1013931
de Leeuw, M., & van Wichelen, S. (2012). Civilizing migrants: Integration, culture and citizenship. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 15(2), 195–210. http://doi.org/10.1177/1367549411432029
Fortier, A.-M. (2013). What’s the big deal? Naturalisation and the politics of desire. Citizenship Studies, 17(6-7), 697–711. http://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2013.780761
Freeman, M. (2009). Education and citizenship in modern Scotland. History of Education, 38(3), 327–332. http://doi.org/10.1080/00467600902872764
Inch, A. (2015). Ordinary citizens and the political cultures of planning: In search of the subject of a new democratic ethos. Planning Theory, 14(4), 404–424. http://doi.org/10.1177/1473095214536172
Iorwerth, H., Hardman, A., & Jones, C. R. (2014). Nation, state and identity in international sport. National Identities, 0(April), 1–21. http://doi.org/10.1080/14608944.2014.897316
Kenealy, D., & Maclennan, S. (2014). Sincere Cooperation, respect for democracy and EU citizenship: Sufficient to guarantee Scotland’s future in the European union? European Law Journal, 20(5), 591–612. http://doi.org/10.1111/eulj.12097
Kisby, B., & Sloam, J. (2012). KISBY, Ben et James Sloam, 2012, « Citizenship, democracy and education in the UK , Towards a common framework for citizenship lessons in the four home nations », 2005(November 2011), 68–89.
Kiwan, D. (2011). “National” citizenship in the UK? Education and naturalization policies in the context of internal division. Ethnicities, 11(3), 269–280. http://doi.org/10.1177/1468796811407811
Learning and Teaching Scotland (2002) ‘Education for Citizenship in Scotland:A Paper for Discussion and Development’, LTS.
Lloyd, K. (2014). Beyond the rhetoric of an “inclusive national identity”: Understanding the potential impact of Scottish museums on public attitudes to issues of identity, citizenship and belonging in an age of migrations. Cultural Trends, 8963(June 2014), 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2014.925279
Macqueen, S., Pill, J., & Knoch, U. (2015). Language test as boundary object: Perspectives from test users in the healthcare domain. Language Testing, 1–18. http://doi.org/10.1177/0265532215607401
Maitles, H. (2010). Citizenship initiatives and pupil values: a case study of one Scottish school’s experience. Educational Review, 62(4), 391–406. http://doi.org/10.1080/00131911003734662
Mannion, G., Biesta, G., Priestley, M., & Ross, H. (2011). The global dimension in education and education for global citizenship: genealogy and critique. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 9(3-4), 443–456. http://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2011.605327
McCrone, D., & Bechhofer, F. (2010). Claiming national identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(6), 921–948. http://doi.org/10.1080/01419870903457199
Meer, N. (2015). Looking up in Scotland? Multinationalism, multiculturalism and political elites. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 38(9), 1477–1496. http://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2015.1005642
Moskal, M. (2016). Spaces of Not Belonging: Inclusive Nationalism and Education in Scotland. Scottish Geographical Journal, 132(1), 85–102. http://doi.org/10.1080/14702541.2015.1084028
Mulvey, G. (2010). When policy creates politics: The problematizing of immigration and the consequences for refugee integration in the UK. Journal of Refugee Studies, 23(4), 437–462. http://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/feq045
Mycock, A. (2012). SNP, identity and citizenship: Re-imagining state and nation. National Identities, 14(November 2014), 53–69. http://doi.org/10.1080/14608944.2012.657078
O’Connor, L., & Faas, D. (2012). The impact of migration on national identity in a globalized world: a comparison of civic education curricula in England, France and Ireland. Irish Educational Studies, 31(1), 51–66. http://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2011.579479
O’Keefe, P. (2013). A Sense of Belonging. College Student Journal (Vol. 47).
Olson, M., Fejes, A., Dahlstedt, M., & Nicoll, K. (2015). Citizenship discourses: production and curriculum. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(7), 1036–1053. http://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2014.883917
Pi??tka-Nykaza, E., & McGhee, D. (2015). Stakeholder citizenship: the complexities of Polish migrants’ citizenship attachments in the context of the Scottish independence referendum. Citizenship Studies Citizenship Studies, 1025(5), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2015.1054789
Piller, I. (2001). Naturalization language testing and its basis in ideologies of national identity and citizenship. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(3), 259–277. http://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050030201
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Schech, S. (2013). R escaling sovereignty ? Griffith Law Review, 22(3), 785–803. http://doi.org/10.1080/10383441.2013.10877022
Spolsky, B. (2012). Family language policy – the critical domain. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(1), 3–11. http://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2011.638072
Stewart, E., & Mulvey, G. (2013). Seeking Safety beyond Refuge: The Impact of Immigration and Citizenship Policy upon Refugees in the UK. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(7), 1023–1039. http://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2013.836960
Turner, J. (2014). Testing the liberal subject: (in)security, responsibility and “self-improvement” in the UK citizenship test. Citizenship Studies, 18(January 2015), 332–348. http://doi.org/10.1080/13621025.2014.905273
van der Meer, T. (2016). Neither bridging nor bonding. A test of socialization effects by ethnically diverse voluntary associations on participants’ inter-ethnic tolerance, inter-ethnic trust and intra-ethnic belonging. Social Science Research, 55, 63–74. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.09.005
Watson, C. (2010). Educational policy in Scotland: inclusion and the control society. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(1), 93–104. http://doi.org/10.1080/01596300903465443
Werbner, P. (2012). Multiculturalism from Above and Below: Analysing a Political Discourse. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(2), 197–209. http://doi.org/10.1080/07256868.2012.649527