Akhtar (2008) presents an uncritical view of Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2002, and looks at translating theory about citizenship teaching into classroom practice. A "capable citizen" not only possesses "knowledge and skills" but also knows how and when to apply them. It might be objected that these are vague terms, and that all humans must possess "knowledge and skills" of some sort to function at all.
Becares et al, 2011 is a quantitative study which deploys measures of cohesion and, based on those measures, finds that it is economic deprivation which disrupts social cohesion rather than ethnic homogeneity. To adapt Akhtar's reasoning, we might say that making all neighbourhoods more affluent will supply everyone with the knowledge and skills they need for capable citizenship.
I am examining the role of citizenship in Scotland at a time when concepts of national identity are being interrogated. This is an ongoing process. Bechhoffer & McCrone, 2012 is a follow-up study to the one they conducted with data from 2006, (McCrone & Bechoffer, 2010). In both sets of research, the central question is whether participants' own sense of national identity affected their acceptance or rejection of claims to national identity of people born elsewhere, comparing data from England and from Scotland.
[The above was written yesterday, Tuesday. I've just had another read of the submission feedback, and I'm being asked to concentrate on the ESOL aspect, which means of course Test Validity Paradigms. So I'll publish this now, and come back to Bechoffer & McCrone, and everything else connected with Scotland and Citizenship, in a new post].
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