Wednesday, March 16, 2016

scotland citizenship

It might be argued that language (or societal knowledge) testing for citizenship operates as a "boundary object" per Macqueen et al, 2015, in which case we need to be aware of what is on the other side of that boundary. That is, what does citizenship mean in Scotland? Here I summarise what I have learned from peer reviewed journal articles found with a Primo Central search in the Strathclyde library database, published since 2009, which came up with a little less than 150 results. I've chosen those articles whose abstract indicated greatest relevance to testing, migration or education. 

Akhtar (2008) presents an uncritical view of Learning and Teaching Scotland, 2002, and looks at translating theory about citizenship teaching into classroom practice. A "capable citizen" not only possesses "knowledge and skills" but also knows how and when to apply them. It might be objected that these are vague terms, and that all humans must possess "knowledge and skills" of some sort  to function at all.

Becares et al, 2011 is a quantitative study which deploys measures of cohesion and, based on those measures, finds that it is economic deprivation which disrupts social cohesion rather than ethnic homogeneity. To adapt Akhtar's reasoning, we might say that making all neighbourhoods more affluent will supply everyone with the knowledge and skills they need for capable citizenship. 

I am examining the role of citizenship in Scotland at a time when concepts of national identity are being interrogated. This is an ongoing process. Bechhoffer & McCrone, 2012 is a follow-up study to the one they conducted with data from 2006, (McCrone & Bechoffer, 2010). In both sets of research, the central question is whether participants' own sense of national identity affected their acceptance or rejection of claims to national identity of people born elsewhere, comparing data from England and from Scotland. 

[The above was written yesterday, Tuesday. I've just had another read of the submission feedback, and I'm being asked to concentrate on the ESOL aspect, which means of course Test Validity Paradigms. So I'll publish this now, and come back to Bechoffer & McCrone, and everything else connected with Scotland and Citizenship, in a new post].


Akhtar, S. (2008). The implementation of education for citizenship in Scotland: recommendation of approaches for effective practice. Improving Schools, 11(1), 33–48.
Becares, L., Stafford, M., Laurence, J., & Nazroo, J. (2011). Composition, Concentration and Deprivation: Exploring their Association with Social Cohesion among Different Ethnic Groups in the UK. Urban Studies, 48(13), 2771–2787.
Bechhofer, F., & McCrone, D. (2012). Changing claims in context: national identity revisited. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 9870(August 2015), 1–21.
Bond, R., Charsley, K., & Grundy, S. (2010). An Audible Minority: Migration, Settlement and Identity Among English Graduates in Scotland. Journal of Ethnic & Migration Studies, 36(3), 483–499.
Chisari, M. (2015). Testing citizen identities: Australian migrants and the Australian values debate. Social Identities, 4630(September), 1–17.
de Leeuw, M., & van Wichelen, S. (2012). Civilizing migrants: Integration, culture and citizenship. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 15(2), 195–210.
Fortier, A.-M. (2013). What’s the big deal? Naturalisation and the politics of desire. Citizenship Studies, 17(6-7), 697–711.
Freeman, M. (2009). Education and citizenship in modern Scotland. History of Education, 38(3), 327–332.
Inch, A. (2015). Ordinary citizens and the political cultures of planning: In search of the subject of a new democratic ethos. Planning Theory, 14(4), 404–424.
Iorwerth, H., Hardman, A., & Jones, C. R. (2014). Nation, state and identity in international sport. National Identities, 0(April), 1–21.
Kenealy, D., & Maclennan, S. (2014). Sincere Cooperation, respect for democracy and EU citizenship: Sufficient to guarantee Scotland’s future in the European union? European Law Journal, 20(5), 591–612.
Kisby, B., & Sloam, J. (2012). KISBY, Ben et James Sloam, 2012, « Citizenship, democracy and education in the UK , Towards a common framework for citizenship lessons in the four home nations », 2005(November 2011), 68–89.
Kiwan, D. (2011). “National” citizenship in the UK? Education and naturalization policies in the context of internal division. Ethnicities, 11(3), 269–280.
Learning and Teaching Scotland (2002) ‘Education for Citizenship in Scotland:A Paper for Discussion and Development’, LTS.
Lloyd, K. (2014). Beyond the rhetoric of an “inclusive national identity”: Understanding the potential impact of Scottish museums on public attitudes to issues of identity, citizenship and belonging in an age of migrations. Cultural Trends, 8963(June 2014), 1–11.
Macqueen, S., Pill, J., & Knoch, U. (2015). Language test as boundary object: Perspectives from test users in the healthcare domain. Language Testing, 1–18.
Maitles, H. (2010). Citizenship initiatives and pupil values: a case study of one Scottish school’s experience. Educational Review, 62(4), 391–406.
Mannion, G., Biesta, G., Priestley, M., & Ross, H. (2011). The global dimension in education and education for global citizenship: genealogy and critique. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 9(3-4), 443–456.
McCrone, D., & Bechhofer, F. (2010). Claiming national identity. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(6), 921–948.
Meer, N. (2015). Looking up in Scotland? Multinationalism, multiculturalism and political elites. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 38(9), 1477–1496.
Moskal, M. (2016). Spaces of Not Belonging: Inclusive Nationalism and Education in Scotland. Scottish Geographical Journal, 132(1), 85–102.
Mulvey, G. (2010). When policy creates politics: The problematizing of immigration and the consequences for refugee integration in the UK. Journal of Refugee Studies, 23(4), 437–462.
Mycock, A. (2012). SNP, identity and citizenship: Re-imagining state and nation. National Identities, 14(November 2014), 53–69.
O’Connor, L., & Faas, D. (2012). The impact of migration on national identity in a globalized world: a comparison of civic education curricula in England, France and Ireland. Irish Educational Studies, 31(1), 51–66.
O’Keefe, P. (2013). A Sense of Belonging. College Student Journal (Vol. 47).
Olson, M., Fejes, A., Dahlstedt, M., & Nicoll, K. (2015). Citizenship discourses: production and curriculum. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 36(7), 1036–1053.
Pi??tka-Nykaza, E., & McGhee, D. (2015). Stakeholder citizenship: the complexities of Polish migrants’ citizenship attachments in the context of the Scottish independence referendum. Citizenship Studies Citizenship Studies, 1025(5), 1–15.
Piller, I. (2001). Naturalization language testing and its basis in ideologies of national identity and citizenship. International Journal of Bilingualism, 5(3), 259–277.
Santoro, N., & Smyth, G. (2010). Researching ethnic “others”: conducting critical ethnographic research in Australia and Scotland. Intercultural Education, 21(6), 493–503.
Schech, S. (2013). R escaling sovereignty ? Griffith Law Review, 22(3), 785–803.
Spolsky, B. (2012). Family language policy – the critical domain. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(1), 3–11.
Stewart, E., & Mulvey, G. (2013). Seeking Safety beyond Refuge: The Impact of Immigration and Citizenship Policy upon Refugees in the UK. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(7), 1023–1039.
Turner, J. (2014). Testing the liberal subject: (in)security, responsibility and “self-improvement” in the UK citizenship test. Citizenship Studies, 18(January 2015), 332–348.
van der Meer, T. (2016). Neither bridging nor bonding. A test of socialization effects by ethnically diverse voluntary associations on participants’ inter-ethnic tolerance, inter-ethnic trust and intra-ethnic belonging. Social Science Research, 55, 63–74.
Watson, C. (2010). Educational policy in Scotland: inclusion and the control society. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(1), 93–104.
Werbner, P. (2012). Multiculturalism from Above and Below: Analysing a Political Discourse. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 33(2), 197–209.